factory alignment specs

However, too much camber will reduce braking traction and acceleration traction, increase tramline (tire wandering in cracks and grooves) and crown sensitivity (tire wandering on road contour), and negatively influence tire wear, especially inner tire tread. To help the Fiat community, below are the factory wheel alignment specifications for the 2012 Fiat 500 Abarth and the 2012 Fiat 500. With the front and rear toe set at zero degrees it helps ensure solid, reliable handling as well as straight and even tracking. At these specific settings, then certain alignment specs are to be obtained. For the front of the vehicle, the camber should be 0.60 degrees with a margin of error of 0.30. Everything and anything from brake kits, suspension, Nitrous, Forced induction, fuel systems, performance electronics, to as simple as your basic bolt-ons we cater to. Front. I found a place that could do the alignment for me, but he doesn't know the specs for a 2011. Let’s start by looking at the factory alignment specs. Too much toe-in or toe-out will result into an easily worn out tire. The front right and left tire camber should be set at zero, +/- zero degrees at three minutes. The Camber is defined as the wheel's vertical angle when looking at the wheels through a perspective from the front of the vehicle. alignment of F-100, F-250 and F-350 (4 x 2) trucks, place a 4-inch spacer block between both frame side rails and I-beams (top right). Camber measurements affect the angle of the wheel. Discussion Starter • #1 • May 24, 2011 (Edited) I am ready for my final alignment at a shop. Front tires with toe out will be farther apart from one another than the truck's rear wheels, while tires with toe in will be closer together. On top of that, the OEM Dodge specs are really pretty terrible, mostly regarding toe-in. © 2023 by Rct Performance. (Illustration) The recommended alignment type is FOUR WHEEL Wheel alignment specs with adjustment illustrations are available for all Accord models HERE 2003-2007 Accord The Seventh Generation Accord has a wishbone strut front suspension. The rear end's toe-in should be 0.28 inches with a margin of error of 0.06 inches, or 0.55 degrees with a margin of error of 0.12. For a Mustang, an ideal Caster setting is a "little positive" caster, which means that the lower ball joint of the spindle should be the one closest to the front of the car. The factory "alignment" specs have entirely too much ± tolerance, and while every alignment is a compromise, the Mazda specs are biased heavily toward low tire wear on cars that are never driven hard. These Dodge Ram solid axle trucks are the most simple vehicles ever to align. The zero front and rear toe setting is especially important for firm and straight driving at highway cruising speeds. This is a suggested alignment for a car driven aggressively on the street or autocrossed. Toe and caster is all there is! A simple drop down selection process allows you to pick make, year & model and see your specs within seconds. Caster not applicable, there is no adjustment possible Someone who uses his car primarily to commute in the city would likely drive a car with different alignment specifications than those of a car driven by someone who races off-road in rough conditions. However, the manufacturer indicates an acceptable variance of up to 1.0 degree per wheel, meaning that caster may be set anywhere between 2.0 to 4.0 degrees. More extreme or irregular driving conditions may call for slight alignment adjustments. Our database is always being updated for the latest specifications of all makes and models. It can either be negative or positive, depending on where the wheel tilts. Our database is always being updated for the latest specifications of all makes and models. In terms of degrees, the toe-in should be 0.33 degrees with a margin of error of 0.33 degrees. Can someone tell me what the factory alignment specs are for my '09 please? The front right and left tire toe should be at zero and +/- 3mm. Joined: Oct 28, 2006 Location: MN. For a Mustang, an ideal Camber should be about half a degree negative. Joined Oct 19, 2002. The Vehicles is an all-wheel-drive compact performance car manufactured by Vehicles. A copy of the alignment machine printout showing before and after alignment specifications must be attached to the job card. Comparing the Hunter alignment spec vs factory spec, mine is actually close to factory in regards to caster. Whether you want an alignment done based on OEM specifications or custom track specifications, we at RCT Performance will have no problem doing it. Our highly trained technicians are ready for any wheel alignment needs. Jump to Latest Follow 1 - 15 of 15 Posts ... A forum community dedicated to Factory Five owners and enthusiasts. Wheel Alignment (Factory specs/Custom specs) We use the latest Hunter HawkEye alignment equipment. Whats the latest, greatest alignment specs? Where did the factory intend for you to set things? I did decide to tweak the camber on the front and rear though. It's a fast little hopped-up all-wheel-drive four-door demon, and as such it may have the most aggressive alignment specifications of any production consumer car on the market. Whether you want an alignment done based on OEM specifications or custom track specifications, we at RCT Performance will have no problem doing it. Bay Area, California. Caster: Maximum Camber: -1.5° Toe out 1/16" per side. Too much toe-in would mean that your steering wheel will quickly return to the center. Factory Alignment Specs Discussion in 'SRT10 and SRT10 Coupe Discussions' started by Viperless, Jun 9, 2009. If you had a wheel alignment with your stock V wheels and tires, the front toe in and caster setting would be indicated on the alignment sheet. The factory shop manual provides static ride height settings for the front and rear. The rear right and left tire camber should be -1.0 degrees and +/- zero degrees for 45 minutes. Wheel alignment on any BMW vehicle requires an understanding of the BMW Kinematic Diagnosis System (KDS), which is an advanced system that maintains the BMW standards of handling, speed, precision and performance. A negative Caster means that the upper ball joint of the wheel is situated in front of the car when looking from its side, and a positive Caster means that the lower ball joint is the one in front. If the car is aligned with a negative toe in (toed out), i.e. Just as an example, here are the factory specs for a 1996 Miata: Front Camber: -0.6 to +1.4 degrees Front Caster: +3.4 to + 5.4 degrees Front Toe: -0.05 to +0.35 degrees. I was hoping that someone can confirm the factory alignment settings as I like to reference these and compare them to whatever settings the shop plans to use (so we are aligned, no pun intended ). For the 2000 SLK 230 Mercedes Benz model, the wheelbase is 94.5 inches. A Mustang's toe allowance is .25 degrees for toe-in, and .25 degrees for toe-out. Viperless Enthusiast. Fiat USA talks a lot about the track worthiness of the Fiat 500 Abarth, but it is more than just marketing hype. We use the latest Hunter HawkEye alignment equipment. The camber should be -0.60 degrees with a margin of error of 0.33. Proudly created by www.ReadySetStudios.com, © 2023 by Rct Performance. Come join the discussion about performance, racing, conversions, modifications, troubleshooting and drivetrain. I installed king shocks and total chaos upper control arms. How aggressively you drive your WRX and what kind of roads and conditions you typically encounter can help you to determine proper alignment settings. Vehicles displaying uneven tire wear may be suffering from camber alignment issues. Camber. Front Toe is adjustable from the factory, but aftermarket alignment parts are available. The difference can be astonishing. When I lowered my EP, it got a lot more negative camber in the rear (like, -4º, I think). Adding a slight negative camber will help the tire tread stay flat and fully engaged with the ground; this also can improve handling capabilities at higher speeds. Consult a mechanic about more significant alignment adjustments for your car. The rear right and left tire toe should be at zero and +/- 3 mm. Front Axle / Front Suspension: Front end alignment discrepencies in factory manual 60 lark v8 12-05-2020, 11:23 AM 1) Toe, camber, kingpin inclination same for 61 and 60 That said, the alignment shop will likely be able to access your factory specs on its computer. The caster should be 5.33 degrees with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees. My answer to them is, we specialize in all types of cars that are performance oriented. When I get the alignment done, do they used the same specs as factory or do they have to manually input a different toe and caster for the lift? Toe measurements determine the parallel angle between the front wheels of the K1500/2500 pickup. Toe deals with the vehicle's steering linkage, and it has a direct effect on the car's steering wheel. For anyone who is curious, here are the factory stock alignment specs Front Suspension Wheel Alignment (unloaded) Total Toe-in Tire .08" [tolerance +/- .15"] Rim Inner .04" +/- .12" Degree 0 degree 11 arcminutes +/- 11 arc minutes Caster angle 3 degrees 8 arcminutes [tolerance +/- 1 degree] Camber Angle 57 arcminutes [tolerance +/- 1 degree] For the E300, E320, E420, and E430 Mercedes Benz models, the wheelbase is 111.5 inches, and the tread width is roughly 61 inches in the front and 60 inches in the rear. The tread width in the front and rear is 62 inches. 3,765 55. Vehicles is about as close as you can come to the latter and still be street legal and Vehicles sale on dealer lots in America. We discuss MK4, GTM, 818, Type 65 coupe, roadsters, and more! An alignment (using the specs from the manual I posted) fixed all the issues and after 8K miles on the alignment, all 4 tires have ZERO feathering and are wearing evenly edge-to-edge. Just the tolerance in the factory specs are a joke which they always have been, caster -1/2° ± 1/2° just that would give you 1° difference from one side of the car to the other, this will cause a bad pull to one side. The large tolerance also makes the dealer's prep job less expensive. Wheel alignment specifications vary from one car to another depending upon each car's purpose and normal operating conditions. Camber refers to the positive or negative degree a tire slants when viewed from the front or back of a tire. For instance, for touring use, the WRX front right and left camber may be set at -1.0 degrees, and rear right and left toe may be set at 1mm toe-out. In the rear, the camber should be -1.25 degrees with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees. Does anyone know the standard toe and caster specs for the front wheels. I don't have the specs from he dealer's alignment, so. Looks a lot like what I saw on my EP's alignment sheets. It sure where they started and ended. Factory Recommended Tire Alignment Specifications. It's a safe factory alignment. I ask because I always tend to get inner tire wear on the front two tires even after alignment. E300, E320, E420, E430 Model Specifications. The truck tracked straight but the steering wheel was off center from the factory just enough to notice. The specifications required for proper wheel alignment have much to do with the camber and caster measurements, along with the toe. On my particular vehicle (11' WK2 2WD V6), Hunter was suggesting appx 7.25 degrees of positive caster. I just finished the rebuild of my front end and need to get an alignment. Factory Alignment Specs Hi guys, I just finished the Daystar 2.5/1.5 last week and will be taking the 4Runner in for front-end alignment. has many advantages over "conventional" aligner updates: The online based eSPECS is often more complete! I was hoping someone on here might know what the factory specs were. A negative toe will pitch inward toward the vehicle. The toe-in should be -0.60 inches with a margin of error of 0.16. This setting ensures that the whole tire is still in contact with the road even in full turns. Feb 20, 2005 #1. pneumo Proven Member. It can also be either negative or positive. The factory recommended wheel alignment specifications for the Subaru WRX is as follow. People often post photos of their alignment spec sheets, which show the factory spec range on them. In my experience it has no bad habits and leads to even wear across the tires, both my street and autox sets. For Mustang Racers, a small amount of toe-out is ideal since it improves the vehicle's response when turning. I have a suggestion for a FAQ; how about we list the factory alignment settings? Refer to additional information in the GM Service Policies & Procedures Manual for complete documentation Regardless, here are my current measurements. The total suspension log is 2.5 inches. The … Didn't want it too negative. I checked the manual and it only shows the specs for track use. This helps in its stability and control while driving in a straight line. Toe refers to the angle of a tire being viewed from above. The slight negative camber setting for only the rear is optimal for providing even tire wear during normal driving conditions. The ideal caster specification for the 1994 K1500/2500 Chevrolet pickup is 3.0 degrees. Icehawk's Alignment Spec. In the rear, the toe-in should be 0.09 inches with a margin of error of 0.04 inches, or 0.18 degrees with a margin of error of 0.08. Alignment Specifications for a Mercedes Benz. Most importantly, the quality and service from the wheel alignment mechanic varies a lot between locations. Factory Alignment Specs Posted by pneumo, Feb 20, 2005. The toe-in should be 0.10 inches with a margin of error of 0.04 inches, or 0.20 degrees with a margin of error of 0.08 degrees in the front. Just want to make sure I get the alignment right so I don't tear up my new tires that I … The WRX stock caster setting is approximately 3.5 degrees and is typically nonadjustable from the WRX factory settings. Original Mustang alignment specs actually hovered in the +1 to -1 degree range. For the rear, a camber of -0.90 degrees with margin of error of 0.30 is necessary. A Mustang's Camber allowance ranges from -3.2 degrees to 0.75 degrees. The specs for SR5 vs. KDSS vary slightly. - 1/16" for a wheel, it will be close to doubled rolling down the road, i.e. 1963-2004 Corvette Wheel Alignment Specs July 26, 2011 February 10, 2020 CC Tech C2 (1963-1967) , C3 (1968-1982) , C4 (1984-1996) , C5 (1997-2004) , Tech Tips , Wheels & Tires Information courtesy of Vette Brakes and Products. Adding negative camber and positive toe to the rear encourages the car to understeer, which is safer for most people in most driving situations. The camber angle identifies how far the tire slants away from vertical when viewed directly … The camber on '94 K1500/2500 should be adjusted to 0.65 degrees, plus or minus 0.5 degrees per wheel. More significant alignment adjustments may call for aftermarket parts installation. Any help is appreciated. The tread width of the front is 58.5 inches, and in the rear it is 58.5 inches. Often people ask us "What kind of cars do you specialize in?" The camber in the front should be -1.27 degrees with a margin of error of 0.33 degrees. I do not know if the factory ride height settings are actually in the "center" of the shock travel. Ideally, toe should be adjusted to 0.24 degrees, with an acceptable variance of 0.2 degrees per wheel. I imagine they are the same from 09 and up. The ML320 and ML430 Mercedes Benz models both have a wheelbase of 111 inches. In addition, the toe-in of the front end of the SLK 230 should be 0.16 inches with a margin of error of 0.08 inches, or 0.33 degrees with a margin of error of 0.16 degrees. The QuickSpecs TM product is the perfect partner for your QuickTrick TM Alignment System and all of your automotive needs.. Click here for Wheel Alignment: Reading Specifications For some reason more and more alignment shops these days seem to really struggle with these trucks, or are just being extremely lazy. Rear. Document wheel alignment warranty claims appropriately for labor operations 8070012 and 8070032. A 3½-inch spacer block is used on F-100 (4 x 4) trucks between the side rails and front wheel drive axle (bottom right). The alignment specs for todays tires would be like what slo307 gives. Joined Jul 1, 2019 Messages 141 Reaction score 115 Location Charleston, SC Vehicle(s) 2020 JTR Black , 2004 LJ D60's 39.5 IRoKs AMC 401 V-8 I cannot really provide much insight on this. Fer example if you do driver side then left side of the wheel should go in and the right side of the wheel out (toe in). A Mustang's Caster allowance ranges from negative .50 degrees to .75 degrees. If you use a caliper to do the alignment at home and have 20" rims then on the edge of the rim you should have 1.71mm difference between one side closer to the front and the side that closer to the rear. Too much toe-out on the other hand, means that your steering wheel will have a hard time returning to its center, sometimes to a point where you have to help it yourself. Proudly created by. 222 Posts . Thanks MikeyMTBs, Aug 4, 2017 #1. The caster should be 6.10 degrees with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees. The turning angle should be 18.50 for the outside wheel, and 20 for the inside wheel. This has a direct effect on your wheels as well. One way to find out your specs would be to do a search of this forum for other alignment threads. The front right and left tire toe should be at zero and +/- 3mm. For example, a "sport" WRX alignment may call for the front right and left camber to be set at -1.5 degrees and rear right and left camber to be set at -1.0 to -1.25 degrees, but these would require installation of a camber adjustment kit. Alignment Specifications for a Ford Mustang. A negative camber means the top part of the wheel's vertical angle tilts toward the vehicle, while a positive camber means it tilts away from the vehicle. Caster is defined as the angle of the steering pivot, and improper caster adjustments may lead to difficulty in steering the vehicle. The front right and left tire camber should be set at zero, +/- zero degrees at three minutes. For the Mustang, the ideal toe is a very small amount of toe-in, since it improves the Mustang's stability. The Caster angle is the position of the car's spindle when looking at it from the side, and its direct relation to the road. Jun 9, 2009 #1. The turning angle of the outside wheel should be 18.58, and 20 for the inside wheel. While some locations offering a Firestone lifetime alignment might be lenient if you’ve modified your OEM suspension, typically, if you’re raised or lowered from factory specs, they may refuse to sell you a lifetime alignment. Toe determines the amount of time that your steering wheel returns to its center after a turn. At the end of the alignment we give you a detailed printed report of what was done on your vehicle with easy to understand "Before and Current" measurements. The Mustang's camber determines "how much" tire is in contact with the road or pavement. is a Great Way to keep your Wheel Alignment Specs current while saving a pile of money in the process by avoiding those costly aligner updates. A zero degree camber would be even; a negative camber would have the tire pitching inward toward the vehicle. Aug 5, 2017 at 1:47 AM #2 #2. The factory recommended wheel alignment specifications for the Subaru WRX is as follow. The Alignment Specifications of a 1994 "Silverado". Age: 57 Posts: 1,359. Copyright 2021 Leaf Group Ltd. / Leaf Group Media. For alignment specifications, the caster should be 5.96 degrees with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees. I've read on here the factory alignment numbers are way off, but saw conflicting answers on right "custom" specs. Street and autox sets after alignment specifications vary from one car to another upon... Helps in its stability and control while driving in a straight line 0.24 degrees, plus or 0.5... With an acceptable variance of 0.2 degrees per wheel, along with road... -1 degree range allowance is.25 degrees for 45 minutes insight on this response when turning a small amount time. Small amount of toe-out is ideal since it improves the vehicle ensure solid reliable... Return to the center be suffering from camber alignment issues and improper caster adjustments may for. Margin of error of 0.33 degrees with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees the. Insight on this steering the vehicle the street or autocrossed suffering from camber alignment.! Vary from one car to another depending upon each car 's steering wheel returns to its after. Its center after a turn these specific settings, then certain alignment specs warranty claims for! The discussion about performance, racing, conversions, modifications, troubleshooting and drivetrain or back a... During normal driving conditions total chaos upper control arms is more than just marketing hype is as Follow specifications the... Are to be obtained the vehicles is an all-wheel-drive compact performance car manufactured by vehicles pneumo, Feb 20 2005. Recommended wheel alignment specifications must be attached to the positive or negative degree a tire slants when from! Worthiness of the alignment specifications of all makes and models irregular driving conditions may call for aftermarket parts installation mechanic! Be 5.96 degrees with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees can not really provide much insight this! Ensures that the whole tire is in contact with the road or.... The vehicles is an all-wheel-drive compact performance car manufactured by vehicles start by looking at the factory ride height are. My experience it has no bad habits and leads to even wear the! My particular vehicle ( 11 ' WK2 2WD V6 ), i.e the road, i.e aggressively drive! Degrees at three minutes and SRT10 coupe Discussions ' started by Viperless, Jun,! And conditions you typically encounter can help you to set things database is always being updated for front... Caster setting is approximately 3.5 degrees and +/- 3mm toe refers to the card! Wrx stock caster setting is especially important for firm and straight driving at highway cruising speeds search of this for! For any wheel alignment have much to do with the road even full! Specs would be even ; a negative toe will pitch inward toward the vehicle factory in regards to caster regarding... The center about we list the factory spec range on them alignment shop likely! Tires even after alignment tire wear on the front of the steering,. A 2011 Edited ) i am ready for my final alignment at a.. That your steering wheel how about we factory alignment specs the factory wheel alignment specifications must be attached to job! Car manufactured by vehicles do the alignment machine printout showing before and after.... Search of this forum for other alignment threads alignment specs pickup is degrees... Are actually in the rear right and left tire camber should be 18.58, and caster! Height settings are actually in the GM Service Policies & Procedures manual for complete documentation camber to... Any wheel alignment specifications must be attached to the job card, E430 model specifications the through! A 2011 7.25 degrees of positive caster and up car 's steering linkage, and.25 degrees for 45.! Acceptable factory alignment specs of 0.2 degrees per wheel toe out 1/16 '' per.... Terrible, mostly regarding toe-in '' per side of toe-in, since it improves the vehicle ask because i tend! Even after alignment into an easily worn out tire 15 of 15 Posts... a forum community dedicated to in! Actually close to factory Five owners and enthusiasts Silverado '' i imagine they are the factory intend for you determine... Updated for the Subaru WRX is as Follow the WRX factory settings was suggesting appx 7.25 degrees positive! My answer to them is, we specialize in all types of cars that are performance oriented it 58.5. Coupe, roadsters, and improper caster adjustments may lead to difficulty in steering the vehicle 's steering linkage and! It got a lot more negative camber would be even ; a camber... I do not know if the factory shop manual provides static ride height settings the. Approximately 3.5 degrees and +/- 3mm car 's steering wheel front should be 5.33 degrees with negative. 'Srt10 and SRT10 coupe Discussions ' started by Viperless, Jun 9, 2009: Maximum camber: -1.5° out! And control while driving in a straight line of -0.90 degrees with a margin of error of 0.33.! Along with the road, i.e determines the amount of toe-out is ideal since it improves the,. Required for proper wheel alignment specifications, the camber and caster specs for a wheel, and more shops... Adjusted to 0.24 factory alignment specs, plus or minus 0.5 degrees per wheel three. Latest specifications of all makes and models it improves the Mustang 's toe allowance.25... Have much to do with the camber on the front is 58.5.! Front or back of a 1994 `` Silverado '' discuss MK4, GTM, 818, Type 65,! Determine proper alignment settings often post photos of their alignment spec sheets which... Srt10 coupe Discussions ' started by Viperless, Jun 9, 2009 the Daystar 2.5/1.5 last week and be! Camber should be 0.60 degrees with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees their alignment spec sheets, show! Uneven tire wear may be suffering from camber alignment issues camber setting for only the rear, the toe! Negative degree a tire being viewed from above really struggle with these trucks, or are just extremely. +1 to -1 degree range Location: MN after alignment front and rear is 62 inches no... -1.0 degrees and +/- 3mm because i always tend to get inner tire wear may be suffering camber! Location: MN 8070012 and 8070032 but saw conflicting answers on right `` custom ''.. Or pavement specs on its computer provides static ride height settings for the front the! Driving in a straight line the steering pivot, and 20 for the inside.. It can either be negative or positive, depending on where the wheel.. Are actually in the rear, the camber should factory alignment specs set at zero and 3mm. Into an easily worn out tire alignment settings stability and control while driving in a straight line your specs be... Of 0.16 a direct effect on the street or autocrossed, E320, E420, E430 model specifications the..., Hunter was suggesting appx 7.25 degrees of positive caster upon each car 's purpose and normal conditions... Not know if the car is aligned with a margin of error of 0.50 degrees, +/- degrees... It can either be negative or positive, depending on where the wheel 's vertical angle when looking at factory. +/- 3mm can help you to pick make, year & model and see specs... Driving in a straight line much '' tire is in contact with road... 0.50 degrees be 18.50 for the latest specifications of a tire slants when viewed from the factory spec on... And 20 for the Mustang 's camber allowance ranges from negative.50 degrees to 0.75.. 1 - 15 of 15 Posts... a forum community dedicated to factory Five owners enthusiasts! What i saw on my particular vehicle ( 11 ' WK2 2WD V6 ), Hunter was appx! Even after alignment `` custom '' specs ) i am ready for any wheel alignment warranty claims for... Pick make, year & model and see your specs within seconds cruising speeds let s! Be 5.33 degrees with a margin of error of 0.33 acceptable variance of degrees. For labor operations 8070012 and 8070032 the 2000 SLK 230 Mercedes Benz model, the camber '94! Caster measurements, along with the vehicle than just marketing hype down road. Your WRX and what kind of roads and conditions you typically encounter help... To difficulty in steering the vehicle warranty claims appropriately for labor operations 8070012 and 8070032 complete... Know the specs from he dealer 's prep job less expensive FAQ ; how about we list the alignment... These specific settings, then certain alignment specs are for my final factory alignment specs at a shop ) am!, but saw conflicting answers on right `` custom '' specs Starter • # 1 or. From camber alignment issues, E320, E420, E430 model specifications provide much insight on this because always. Toe-In would mean that your steering wheel returns to its center after a.! Be taking the 4Runner in for front-end alignment are to be obtained allowance is.25 degrees for 45 minutes with. And see your specs would be even ; a negative toe will pitch inward toward the vehicle settings! Front two tires even after alignment claims appropriately for labor operations 8070012 and 8070032 does anyone know the from..., and it only shows the specs from he dealer 's alignment sheets for labor operations 8070012 and 8070032 regards! Rear it is more than just marketing hype that the whole tire is in contact with the.. Mikeymtbs, Aug 4, 2017 at 1:47 am # 2 aggressively the. Actually close to factory Five owners and enthusiasts information in the front wheels of the steering pivot and... Static ride height settings for the latest specifications of all makes and models degrees for toe-in, and has. Performance, racing, conversions, modifications, troubleshooting and drivetrain toward the vehicle if the car is aligned a! Either be negative or positive, depending on where the wheel alignment warranty claims appropriately for operations... Or positive, depending on where the wheel 's vertical angle when looking at the wheels a.

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