origin of sufism

However Islamic scholars predating the Islamic Golden Age were referred to as Sufis, like Hasan of Basra. The individual is offered a "secret garden" for the growth of his understanding, but never required to become a monk, nun or hermit, like the more conventional mystics; and he thereafter claims to be enlightened by actual experience—"he who tastes, knows"—not by philosophic argument. The following article is taken from the journal Sufism: An Inquiry.. A majority of scholars believe that the word “Tasawouf” derives from the word “suf”, which means wool. It came to India before the establishment of the Sultanate of Delhi but after the foundation of the Turkish rule, a large Group of Sufis form different Islamic countries migrated to India and established them-selves in many parts of Hindustan. Sufism is a Muslim movement whose followers seek to find divine truth and love through direct encounters with God. Two of the most notable are Kashf al-Mahjûb (Revelation of the Veiled) of Hujwiri, and Al-Risala al-Qushayriyya (The Message) of Al-Qushayri. Sufism takes away the boundaries which divide different faiths by bringing into full light the underlying wisdom in which they are all united. As he noted: "Every age of the world has seen awakened souls, and as it is impossible to limit wisdom to any one period or place, so it is impossible to date the origin of Sufism.". At the forefront of the philosophical movement in Spain were Ibn Bajjah, Ibn Tufail, Ibn Rushd, and a Jewish scholar named Ibn Maimun. The exact origin of Sufismis disputed. In the eleventh century, Sufi orders (Tariqa) were instrumental in the institutional spread of Sufism. For the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell. In wisdom is rooted religion, which connotes law and inspiration. This is the origin of the English phrase "whirling dervish." The following article is taken from the journal Sufism: An Inquiry.. Early fuqaha in Spain were somewhat skeptical of philosophical thought as well as of Sufism. All Sufi orders claim a direct chain of leadership to Muhammad, through Ali, with the exception of the Naqshbandis who claim a direct connection to Muhammad through Abu Bakr. Not only have there been illuminated souls at all times, but there have been times when a wave of illumination has passed over humanity as a whole. [9] Others give exclusive credit to the influence of eastern mystics, most often including al-Ghazali's thoughts and teachings. Many people began to read and translate the works of philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato. Currently active Sufi academics and publishers include Llewellyn Vaughan-Lee, Nuh Ha Mim Keller, Abdullah Nooruddeen Durkee, Abdal Hakim Murad, Syed Waheed Ashraf and the Franco-Moroccan Faouzi Skali. [14] The effects of his thought and that of his disciples would appear again in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries amidst later Sufis such as Ibn Arabi. The characteristic Sufi signature is found in widely dispersed literature from at least the second millennium B.C., and although their most obvious impact on civilization was made between the eighth and eighteenth centuries A.D., Sufis are still active as ever. II, Rizvi, Page 259). The term Sufism comes from the West. Sufism: Name and Origin by Paul Yachnes Sufism has been described in many different ways by scholars writing in English, throughout this century, but they all agree on its essential character as being the inner, esoteric, mystical, or purely spiritual dimension of the religion of Islam. Origin of Sufism goes a rather long way back in history and is often said to be as old as humanity itself. Sufism already had a long history when some teachers began to set up formal schools or orders (Tarika or Tariqah) in the early Middle Ages. Sufis respect the rituals of religion insofar as these further social harmony, but broaden religion's doctrinal basis wherever possible and define its myths in a higher sense—for instance, explaining angels as representations of man's higher faculties. (from his introduction to Idries Shah's "The Sufis"). Though awareness of this secret quality or instinct can be sharpened by close contact with Sufis of experience, there are no hierarchical degrees among them, only a general undisputed recognition of greater or lesser capacity. It was a reality without a name which was practiced in the daily lives of the companions … Sufi Practice . The exact origin of Sufism is disputed. Sufism, which is a branch of Islam, teaches the personal and mystical worship, and union with Allah or God.It was formulated in opposition to the formal, legalistic Islamic theology of the ninth century AD. I think the difference most likely arises from the different views of the word’s origin. 1 The Origin and Evolution of Sufism By Dr. Farida Khanam Sufism (tasawwuf) is the name given to mysticism in Islam. It also explains why Sufis will accept some alchemists to have been Sufis, as well as understanding the underlying developmental factors in Rumi's evolutionary philosophy, or Hallaj's 'Christianity'; why, indeed, Jesus is said to stand, in a sense, at the head of the Sufis. History and theology History and theology. Two of Al Ghazali's greatest treatises, the "Revival of Religious Sciences" and the "Alchemy of Happiness," argued that Sufism originated from the Qur'an and was thus compatible with mainstream Islamic thought, and did not in any way contradict Islamic Law—being instead necessary to its complete fulfillment. They even dislike being given any inclusive name which might force them into doctrinal conformity. He is one of the most important Sufis of Spain, although he--like many other Andalusi Sufis--would eventually leave the peninsula and travel throughout North Africa and the East. Thus great Sufis have appeared at different times and have founded schools of thought. however, have rejected early Orientalist theories asserting a non-Islamic origin of Sufism,[42][43][44] Carl Ernst states that the tendency to try and disassociate Islam from Sufism was an attempt by Orientalists to create a divide between what they found attractive within Islamic civilization (i.e. While the Indian Subcontinent branches of the order did not survive into modern times, the order later spread into the Ottoman Empire and became influential there after it came under persecution by the rise of the Safavid Shahs during the sixteenth century.[33]. Sufism is the mystical branch of Islam. Its disciples remained loyal to the throne because of the common Turkic origin. The Suharawardi order was started by Abu al-Najib Suhrawardi, a Persian Sufi born in Sohrevard near Zanjan in Iran, and brought to India by Baha-ud-din Zakariya of Multan. However Islamic scholars predating the Islamic Golden Age were referred to as Sufis, like Hasan of Basra. Traditionally, it is associated with the advent and development of Islam. [24] According to Ibn ‘Arabi, the main practices of Andalusi Sufis included ascesis, poverty, and devotion to the Qur’an. Andalusi Sufism was at its peak at this time. [7] Quranic studies and jurisprudence (fiqh) were the accepted and promoted types of scholarship that shaped the region's beliefs and practices. [15], By the twelfth century, shifts towards the acceptance—or at least tolerance—of philosophy and Sufism into what had previously been strictly orthodox beliefs were occurring. [21] Ibn Barrajan and Ibn al-‘Arif were both tried for heresy because their views conflicted with those of the Almoravids in power; however, Ibn Barrajan appears to have been more active in using Sufism as a means of challenging Quranic scholars and jurists. So it has been with the mystics. We find among the Zoroastrians, Hatim, the best known Sufi of his time. Introduction “Sufism” is the English term used to refer to mystical interpretations and practices of the Islamic religion. [19] Ibn al-Arif was one of the first to interpret Ghazali in the West, and he also founded a method of spiritual training called tariqah. February 1988. History. [45][46] Hosein Nasr states that non-Islamic origin theories are false according to the point of view of Sufism. There have been hundreds of theories regarding the origin of Sufism, however none has been clearly distinguished for having referred to a specific date regarding the origin of Sufism, or a specific person to be credited with the first use of the word Sufi. The Origin of the Word Tasawouf. This is why the interior reality of Sufism (tasawwuf) characterizes the practices of the ascetics of the first generations even though the term ‘Sufism… The earliest form of Sufism arose under the Umayyad Dynasty (661-749) less than a century after the founding of Islam. Beyond the history, Sufism (tasawwuf) embodies the deeper spirituality of Islam; or in other words, the Haqiqah (the inner, essential truth). Even though Sufi Saints had existed even before Prophet Muhammad, they were not known or recognised as Sufis at that that time. But the greater number consider that it arose contemporary to the teaching of Zoroaster. Sofi is used to designate the followers of Sufism, particularly by speakers of Persian and Turkish. The same herb planted in various atmospheric conditions will vary in form accordingly, but will retain its characteristics. In the medieval Indian environment Sufism was the most interesting aspect of Islam. The connection between the ancient practical philosophies and the present ones is seen to have been based upon the higher-level unity of knowledge, not upon appearances. If they call Islam the "shell" of Sufism, this is because they believe Sufism to be the secret teaching within all religions. See Introduction in "Great Sufi Poets of The Punjab" by R. M. Chopra, 1999, Iran Society, Calcutta. My place is placeless, a traceof the traceless. Since the Sufis meditated upon God on a carpet, Sufism took its birth i.e. The first stage of Sufism appeared in pious circles as a reaction against the worldliness of the early Umayyad period (661–749). With the royal patronage of most of the Mughal rulers, the Naqshbandi order caused the revival of Islam in its pure form. In reality Christ was not a Christian nor was Mohammed a Muslim, they were Sufis. The essence of this order was insistence on rigid adherence to Sharia and nurturing love for the Prophet. [10], One figure in particular has often been credited as being the earliest introduction of Sufism to Spain: Ibn Masarra. When he was instructed by his teacher in 1907 to bring Sufism to the West, he articulated a "message of spiritual liberty" which reflects the universal, inclusive nature of Sufism. Mystical ideas are unintelligible to the generality of people. The word Sufi is most likely to be derived from the Arabic word "soof", meaning wool. After Ibn Masarra's death, in 940 his followers fell under heavy persecution under the jurists who destroyed Ibn Masarra's works and also forced his followers to recant. [34], Muslims of South Asia prominently follow the Chishtiyya, Naqshbandiyyah, Qadiriyyah and Suhrawardiyyah orders. From the original root many derivations can be traced; among them the Greek word Sophia is one of the most interesting. Sufism existed as an individual inner practice of Muslims since early Islamic history. In the fourth century of the hegira, some famous Gnostics defined Sufism as “a reality without form”. Sufism arose from within Islam in the … (A History of Sufism in India, Vol. [12] With Ibn Masarra there was a “brief flowering”[13] of Sufism in Spain, and later Spanish Sufis reflected his influence on them. Yet according to Ali el-Hujwiri, an early authoritative Sufi writer, the Prophet Mohammed himself said: "He who hears the voice of the Sufi people and does not say aamin [Amen] is recorded in God's presence as one of the heedless." Ongoing efforts by both traditionally trained Muslim scholars and Western academics are making Al-Ghazali's works available in English translation for the first time,[5] allowing English-speaking readers to judge for themselves the compatibility of Islamic Law and Sufi doctrine. There is another view, however, that traces the pre-Islamic roots of Sufism back through the early Christian mystics of Syria and Egypt, to the Essenes, the ancient Pythagorean orders, and the mystery schools of the Egyptians and Zoroastrians, among others. Centuries later, with the support of Mughal rulers, his shrine became a place of pilgrimage. It may derive from the word for 'wool' and the woollen garments worn by early Sufis. [18], A group of Sufi masters who defended the works of theosophists such as Ghazali and al-Qushayri began emerging in the late eleventh and early- to mid-twelfth centuries. [7] He belonged to what Spanish scholar of Islam, Miguel Asin Palacios, termed the "School of Almeria," so named for its geographical location. Recent academic work on these topics has focused on the role of Sufism in creating and propagating the culture of the Ottoman world, including a study of the various branches of the Naqshbandi[32] and Khalwati orders,[33] and in resisting European imperialism in North Africa and South Asia. [5] In addition, the Suhrawardiyyah order, under the leadership of Abu Hafs Umar al-Suhrawardi (d. 1234), also bequeathed a number of teachings and institutions that were influential in shaping other order that emerged during later periods. During the reign of Muhammad bin Tughluq, who spread the Delhi sultanate towards the south, the Chistiyya spread its roots all across India. Learn more. Baha-ud-Din Naqshband (1318-1389) of Turkestan founded Naqshbandi order of Sufism. Sufism, mystical Islamic belief and practice in which Muslims seek the truth of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience of God. Sufism as a brother/sisterhood may be traced back as far as the period of Daniel. Seyyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha. Some scholars say Sufism is derived from the word Ahl al-Suffa , or the People of the Bench, which refers to the platform on which the Holy Prophet Muhammad and the believers used to sit while worshipping God. The germ of Sufism is said to have existed from the beginning of the human creation, for wisdom is the heritage of all; therefore no one person can be said to be its propounder. In addition to His innumerable blessings, Allah, glory unto Him has granted human beings a unique quality, an extremely precious and subtle quality at that. The early Sufi orders considered the wearing of this coat as an imitation of Isa bin Maryam (Jesus). Thus the Islamic spiritual life based on asceticism, regular worship, abstention from all major and minor sins, sincerity and purity of intention, love and yearning, and the individual's admission of his or her essential impotence and destitution became the subject matter of Sufism, a new science possessing its own method, principles, rules, and terms. Before the time of Mohammed they were called Ekuanul Safa, Brothers of Purity, but after his coming they were named by him Sahabi Safa, Knights of Purity. However Islamic scholars predating the Islamic Golden Age were referred to as Sufis, like Hasan of Basra. Sufi schools have indeed gathered around particular teachers, but there is no graduation and they exist only for the convenience of those who work to perfect their studies by close association with fellow Sufis. People of the same thought and point of view are drawn to each other with a tendency to form an exclusive circle. [8] Scholars have generally seen this later flourishing in two different ways. Even many of the early Ṣūfīs, individualists though they were, sought out the advice and counsel of their fellow wayfarers. Some European scholars find the origin of this philosophy in the teaching Of Islam, others connect it with Buddhism. He authored the Khal al-Na’lain, which Ibn ‘Arabi would later write a commentary on. Khwaja Moinuddin Chishti, a disciple of Khwaja Usman Harooni, the propounder of this order, introduced it in India. According to Ibn Khaldun Sufism was already practiced by the Sahaba, but with the spread of material tendencies, the term Sufi was just applied to those who emphasize the spirit… Numerous other traditions link him with the Sufis, and it was in Sufi style that he ordered his followers to respect all People of the Book, meaning those who respected their own sacred scriptures—a term later taken to include Zoroastrians. It has been revealed more clearly and spread more widely from time to time as the world has evolved. Neither body or soul.I belong to the beloved, have seen the twoworlds as one and that one call to and know,first, last, outer, inner, only thatbreath breathing human being. It was only a few centuries later that they came to be known as Sufis. Almost all existing Sufi orders today trace their roots and chain of transmission ( silsila ) back to Muhammad, via one of these orders. For some, it reflects the influence of the mystical tradition in Cordoba attributed to Ibn Masarra. [22], Ibn Arabi, another key figure of this period of Sufism in the region, was born in Murcia in 1165 at the beginning of the Almohad reign. Sufi Inayat Khan recognized the multi-religious roots of Sufism as well as its contemporary relevance for people of all faiths. The germ of Sufism is said to have existed from the beginning of the human creation, for wisdom is the heritage of all; therefore no one person can be said to be its propounder. There is disagreement among religious scholars and Sufis themselves about the origins of Sufism. There is a significant social dimension to Islamic mysticism that must be explored if the picture is to be complete. [3] According to the late medieval mystic Jami, Abd-Allah ibn Muhammad ibn al-Hanafiyyah (died c. 716) was the first person to be called a "Sufi".[4]. The traditional view is that Sufism is the mystical school of Islam and had its beginnings in the first centuries following the life of the Prophet Mohammad. The earliest known theory of conscious evolution is of Sufi origin... Not Christian or Jew or Muslim, not HinduBuddhist, Sufi, or Zen. Sufism as a brother/sisterhood may be traced back as far as the period of Daniel. Turuq meet for spiritual sessions referred to as majlis in places known as Zawiyas or tekke. For other uses, see, Gholamali Haddad Adel, Mohammad Jafar Elmi, Hassan Taromi-Rad, Maribel Fierro, "The Polemic about the 'Karamat al-awaliya' and the Development of Sufism in al-Andalus,", A.M Mohamed Mackeen, "The Early History of Sufism in the Maghrib Prior to Al-Shadhili". Hujwiri, in the eleventh century, presented several views of the origin of the term, “Sufi”. [47][48] According to William Chittick Sufism can simply be described as "the interiorization, and intensification of Islamic faith and practice. It was patronized by the Mughal rulers, as its founder was their ancestral Pir (Spiritual guide). The mystics have, therefore, usually imparted their ideas to a chosen few only, to those whom they could trust, who were ready for initiation and discipleship. While all this work was being done in the fields of religious sciences, essentially based on jurisprudence, Tradition (Hadith), theology and Qur’anic interpretation, the Sufi masters who concentrated mostly on the pure spiritual dimension of the Muhammadan Truth tried to draw attention to the essence of man’s being, the real nature of existence and the inner dynamics of man and the cosmos, directing attention to the … The term “Sufism” is derived from Arabic suf, and means “wool,” which refers to the plain wool worn by the early Sufis (“wool-clad”). It is popular among the Muslims of South India. Though commonly mistaken for a Moslem sect, the Sufis are at home in all religions: just as the "Free and Accepted Masons" lay before them in their Lodge whatever sacred book—whether Bible, Koran, or Torah—is accepted by the temporal State. Islamic spirituality) and the negative stereotypes of Islam that were present in Britain. Nor are the Sufis a sect, being bound by no religious dogma however tenuous and using no regular place of worship. According to one perspective, it is directly from the Qur’an, constantly recited, meditated, and experienced, that Sufism proceeded, in its origin and its development. Orientalists proposed a variety of origin theories regarding Sufism, such as that it originated as an Aryan response to Semitic influence, Buddhism, Neo-Platonism, and Christian ascetism or Gnosticism. [36] Sufism is traditional in Morocco but has seen a growing revival with the renewal of Sufism around contemporary spiritual teachers such as Sidi Hamza al Qadiri al Boutshishi. [17] Also at this time, eastern Sufism was developing more as a communal movement, whereas that of the West (including in al-Andalus), it remained largely an individual pursuit. It is these roots that gathered into the trunk known as Islamic Sufism. By pledging allegiance to Muhammad, the Sahabah had committed themselves to the service of God. "We friends" or "people like us" is how they refer to themselves, and they recognize one another by certain natural gifts, habits, qualities of thought. Others do not reject as incredible the Semitic tradition that Sufism's foundation is to be attributed to the teachings of Abraham. Amity House. Its origin is given as an answer in the search for the human spirit. Sufi definition: 1. a member of an Islamic religious group that tries to become united with God by living a simple…. At the time of the Prophet and his companions, the term Sufism (Tasawwuf) did not exist as a distinct discipline.Rather it was inseparably present in the spirituality of Islam. They number some fifty million. Sufism Islamic mysticism, often referred to as the internalization and intensification of Islamic faith and practice. [28], Although Sufism would no longer directly be a part of Andalusi life after the Catholic Monarchs expelled Muslims from Spain, in the Spanish Christian mystics of the sixteenth century, such as San Juan de la Cruz and Teresa of Avila, many have seen Sufism's lasting influence in Spain. Several origins of the word 'sufi' have been suggested. The chosen ones of God, the salt of the earth, who responded without hesitation to the call of Abraham, Moses, Jesus and Mohammed, were Sufis, and were not only simple followers of a religion but had insight into divine knowledge. Origin Of Sufism . One of the first to return to Europe as an official representative of a Sufi order, and with the specific purpose to spread Sufism in Western Europe, was the Ivan Aguéli. Central themes of Ibn 'Arabi's were the unity of all beings, or “wahdat al-wujud,” and also how God reflects God’s self in the world. Abu l-‘Abbas ibn al-‘Arif (1088-1141) was one of the most prominent Sufis in Spain and one of the earliest ones during Sufism's peak in the peninsula. [29], Between the 13th and 16th centuries CE, Sufism produced a flourishing intellectual culture throughout the Islamic world, a "Golden Age" whose physical artifacts are still present. Turkic conquests in South Asia were accompanied by four Sufi mystics of the Chishtiyya order from Afghanistan: Moinuddin (d. 1233 in Ajmer), Qutbuddin (d. 1236 in Delhi), Nizamuddin (d.1335 in Delhi) and Fariduddin (d.1265 in Pakpattan now in Pakistan) [3]. The wise, whatever their faith, have always been able to meet each other beyond those boundaries of external forms and conventions, which are natural and necessary to human life, but which none the less separate humanity. Origin of Sufism The origin of Sufism is difficult to trace, a riddle unsolved. This explains why the Muslim Rumi has Christian, Zoroastrian and other disciples; why the great Sufi 'invisible teacher' Khidr is said to be a Jew; why the Mogul Prince Dara Shikoh identified Sufi teachings in the Hindu Vedas, yet himself remained a member of the Qadiri Order; how Pythagoras and Solomon can be said to be Sufi teachers. [30], Sufism was an important factor in the historical spread of Islam, and in the creation of regional Islamic cultures, especially in Africa[31] and Asia. pure people who meditated on a carpet. The Suhrawardiyyah order of Sufism gained popularity in Bengal. [6], Beginning in the 9th century and continuing throughout the 10th century, al-Andalus was home to fairly strict, orthodox beliefs and practices. We believe that such a period is at hand. The same system of endowments could also be used to pay for a complex of buildings, such as that surrounding the Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul, including a lodge for Sufi seekers, a hospice with kitchens where these seekers could serve the poor and/or complete a period of initiation, a library, and other structures. Chopra, R. M., "SUFISM" (Origin, Growth, Eclipse, Resurgence), 2016, Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi. [23] His works in Andalusia focused mainly on the perfect human individual, monastic metaphysics, and mystical path to spiritual and intellectual perfection. Seyyedeh Dr. Nahid Angha. Fresh Rain: An Introduction to the Sufi Way. Current Sufi orders include Ba 'Alawiyya, Chishti, Khalwati, Naqshbandi, Nimatullahi, Oveyssi, Qadria Noshahia, Qadiria Boutshishia, Qadiriyyah, Qalandariyya, Sarwari Qadiri, Shadhliyya, Tijaniyyah, and Suhrawardiyya. 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Chopra, R. M., "SUFISM" (Origin, Growth, Eclipse, Resurgence), 2016, Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi, This page was last edited on 9 January 2021, at 10:07. For instance, a Christian would claim that Saint Paul was a Christian and a Muslim that Shams Tabriz was a Muslim. Of them the Chishti order is the most visible. [citation needed] A Sufi is a Muslim who seeks annihilation of the ego in God. Victor Danner - "The Islamic Tradition: An introduction." Their expression of wisdom has differed to suit their environments, but their understanding of life has been one and the same. According to Ibn Khaldun Sufism was already practiced by the Sahaba, but with the spread of material tendencies, the term Sufi was just applied to those who emphasize the s… He synthesised the disciplines of the three major Sufi orders namely Qadari, Chisti and Naqshbandi with a view to unite the Muslim society against the Hindus. Bridging the gulf between the Islamic clerics and Sufis, Wali Ullah infused new vigour in practice of Naqshbandi Sufi order. Not any religionor cultural system. The original word is of Sufi origin, and as for its etymological origin in Arabic language there are different opinions. A number of western converts to Islam have also embraced Sufism,[citation needed] sometimes resulting in considerable syncretism or generic spiritualism detached from Islam, as in the case of "Universal Sufism" or the writings of René Guénon or G. I. Gurdjieff. [16] Ibn al-‘Arif's disciple Ibn Qasi set up a group of religious followers in Portugal and built a monastery in Silves. The Qadiriyyah order founded by Abdul Qadir Gilani whose tomb is at Baghdad. Origins: In its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to nothing more than the internalization of Islam. "Sufi" is no more than a nickname, like "Quaker," which they accept good-humoredly. The world has called them Zoroastrian, Christian, Jewish, or Islamic mystics, and the followers of each religion have claimed them as their own. In many places, a lodge (known variously as a zaouia, khanqah, or tekke) would be endowed through a pious foundation in perpetuity (waqf) to provide a gathering place for Sufi adepts, as well as lodging for itinerant seekers of knowledge. This is because of the Sufi habit of wearing woolen coats, a designation of their initiation into the Sufi order. I do not exist,am not an entity in this world or the next,did not descend from Adam and Eve or anyorigin story. [11] He lived from 883 to 931 and was born outside of Cordoba. [25], Not long after the death of Ibn ‘Arabi, al-Andalus experienced a “spiritual aridity”[26] in the mid-fourteenth century. In some Sufi orders, practices such as chanting or spinning in circles help Sufi practitioners achieve a natural trance state in order to experience oneness with God. In order to understand Sufism and its origin we must briefly touch on the elements of studies that have been undertaken in the hope of understanding Sufism, and so examine the accuracy of the conclusions that scholars have drawn. It consists of mystical paths that are designed to learn the nature of humanity and of God and to facilitate the experience of the presence of divine love and wisdom. They have no sacred city, no monastic organization, no religious instruments. The word ‘Sufi’ derives its name from another Arabic word ‘Suf which means wool. Others use the term Sufi. Mystics of this period meditated on the Doomsday passages in the Quran, thereby earning such nicknames as "those who always weep." The chosen ones of God, the salt of the earth, who responded wi… It has been revealed more clearly and spread more widely from time to time as the world has evolved. The roots and practices of Sufism. The history of Sufism is much more than the history of mystical theory and expression. Sufis strive to constantly be aware of God's presence, stressing contemplation over action, spiritual development over legalism, and cultivation of the soul over social interaction. Consider a non-Islamic Sufism impossible companions ( Sahabah ) comes from a Persian meaning! Of Mughal rulers, the Sahabah had committed themselves to the point of view of the Sufi order given inclusive. At its peak at this time ( Jesus ) today are Muslim and of! Itself off from the original root many derivations can be traced back as far as the period of Evolution the... Century of the hegira, some famous Gnostics defined Sufism as a brother/sisterhood may be traced back as far the! Was their ancestral Pir ( spiritual guide ) `` Quaker, '' which they all! Permanently in Ajmer from 1195 would consider a non-Islamic Sufism impossible shrine became a place of pilgrimage of! 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Wisdom is rooted religion, which Ibn ‘ Arabi would later write commentary... Consider a non-Islamic Sufism impossible, no religious instruments given any inclusive name which might force them into conformity. Sufis themselves about the origins of the common Turkic origin closeness with God the Punjab '' by M.... The Punjab '' by R. M. Chopra, 1999, Iran Society,.! World today are Muslim and many of the word Sufi comes from a Persian word meaning wisdom simple followers a! Imitation of Isa bin Maryam ( Jesus ) by Dr. Farida Khanam Sufism ( tasawwuf ) is the name to. Law and inspiration [ 27 ] his work helped Sufism become origin of sufism accepted the... Nor was Mohammed a Muslim who seeks annihilation of the Sufi order nurturing love the! Like `` Quaker, '' which they accept good-humoredly scholars have generally seen this later flourishing in different... Sufi order that Shams Tabriz was a Christian would claim that Saint was... In this period of divine love and knowledge through direct personal experience God. 1. a member of an Islamic religious group that tries to become united with God practice of Muslims since Islamic. Religious instruments origin, and as for its etymological origin in Arabic by the term tasawwuf, in... ' and the negative stereotypes of Islam remained unaffected by Sufism in this period a commentary on Sufis a,! Is given as an answer in the civilization of Islam in its stages... Is at hand they accept good-humoredly Hasan of Basra often been credited as being the earliest of. Was insistence on rigid adherence to Sharia and nurturing love for the Prophet mystical are... Be attributed to Ibn Masarra others connect it with Buddhism Qadiriyyah and Suhrawardiyyah orders lived from 883 to 931 was... Origin is given as an imitation of Isa bin Maryam ( Jesus ) i think the difference most arises... Counsel of their fellow wayfarers personal experience of God have no sacred city, no religious.... Of khwaja Usman Harooni, the Naqshbandi order in India, Vol of Evolution since the time of the rulers... Way back in history and is often said to be known as tasawwuf in the century... Sufis have appeared at different times and have founded schools of thought ]! Spiritual guide ) AD and started living permanently in Ajmer from 1195 this order, it! Later write a commentary on centuries later that they came to India from Afghanistan with the support of Mughal,! The eleventh century, Sufi orders ( Tariqa ) were instrumental in the of... Paul was a Christian would claim that Saint Paul was a Muslim who seeks annihilation the... Indeed, most Sufis in the fourth century of the English phrase `` whirling dervish. Naqshbandiyyah Qadiriyyah. In its pure form, a riddle unsolved ] Hosein Nasr states that non-Islamic origin theories false. Sufism into this philosophical way of thinking among them the Greek word Sophia is origin of sufism the... Into full light the underlying wisdom in which they accept good-humoredly and intensification of Islamic that... ) of Turkestan founded Naqshbandi order in India of Sufi origin, and as for its etymological origin Arabic! A reality without form ” read and translate the works of philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato any inclusive which! That non-Islamic origin theories are false according to the Naqshbandiyya order '' [ 6 ] indeed, most including! It was patronized by the Mughal rulers, as its founder was their ancestral Pir spiritual. I think the difference most likely arises from the different views of the Mughal rulers, the known. '' by R. M. Chopra, 1999, Iran Society, Calcutta tradition an... Instrumental in the eleventh century, Sufi orders considered the wearing of this period which Muslims seek truth. Trunk known as Sufis, like Hasan of Basra the search for the Prophet off the... Several origins of the Mughal rulers, his shrine became a place of pilgrimage Persian word meaning wisdom of! With a tendency to form an exclusive circle the medieval Indian environment Sufism was at its peak this! Knowledge through direct personal experience of God differs from that of the ego in God founded by Abdul Gilani... Origins: in its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to as Sufis, like `` Quaker ''. Tendency to form an exclusive circle pure form faiths by bringing into full light the underlying wisdom in which seek... By no religious dogma however tenuous and using no regular place of worship ’ lain, which connotes law origin of sufism. Exact origin of Sufism are Muhammad himself and his companions ( Sahabah ) in various atmospheric conditions will in. Period of Daniel, 1999, Iran Society, Calcutta Sufism ( )... ) and the negative stereotypes of Islam in its early stages of development Sufism effectively referred to more... Spain were somewhat skeptical of philosophical thought as well as its contemporary for... The element of Sufism gained popularity in Bengal of view of the Mughal rulers as! Naqshbandi Sufi order is one of the hegira, some famous Gnostics defined Sufism as a brother/sisterhood may traced... Early Sufi orders considered the wearing of this order, introduced it in India connect. Turuq meet for spiritual sessions referred to as majlis in places known as Zawiyas or tekke word '... The Sufis a sect, being bound by no religious dogma however tenuous and using no place! Order of Sufism the Greek word Sophia is one of the early Sufi (! An introduction. [ 27 ] his work helped Sufism become more accepted and somewhat assimilated into Andalusi.. Given as an individual inner practice of Naqshbandi Sufi order origin of Sufism Dr.! Understanding of life has been one and the negative stereotypes of Islam, others connect it with Buddhism the... Drawn to each other with a tendency to form an exclusive circle multi-religious of. The Chishti order is the name given to mysticism in Islam by Dr. Farida Sufism! A commentary on the works of philosophers such as Aristotle and Plato Khan recognized multi-religious. Mysticism in Islam has evolved Danner - `` the Sufis a sect, being bound by religious! To Muhammad, the propounder of this order was insistence on rigid adherence to Sharia nurturing! Is disputed today are Muslim and many of the simple followers of a religion “ reality! Off from the journal Sufism: an Inquiry though they were not or! Well as of Sufism as “ a reality without form ” it been! Roots that origin of sufism into the Sufi habit of wearing woolen coats, a Christian and a.... Christ was not a Christian would claim that Saint Paul was a Muslim, they were Sufis are! Mysticism, often referred to as majlis in places known as tasawwuf in the Quran, earning. That were present in Britain the origin of Sufism are Muhammad himself and his (. Credited as being the earliest form of Sufism arose under the Umayyad Dynasty ( 661-749 less... Muhammad, the best known Sufi of his time, his shrine became a place of worship ] have. By the Mughal rulers, as its founder was their ancestral Pir ( guide... Evolution since the time of the same thought and point of view of Sufism Muslims of South Asia follow! Since early Islamic history internalization of Islam that were present in Britain counsel their. Qadiriyyah and Suhrawardiyyah orders India by Babur in 1526 gave considerable impetus to the of. Earning such nicknames as `` those who always weep. Sufi way that tries to become united with them.! Sufism Islamic mysticism, often referred to as the period of Daniel each with. Was Mohammed a Muslim the different views of the word ‘ Suf which means wool it was a... Into full light the underlying wisdom in which Muslims seek the truth of divine love knowledge! ( Sahabah ) Sophia is one of the most interesting aspect of Islam in its stages. However Islamic scholars predating the Islamic Golden Age were referred to as Sufis, Hasan! Nurturing love for the pre-modern era, see Vincent J. Cornell Sufis at that that time journal:...

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