italy history summary

Italy did not receive other territories promised by the Pact of London, so this outcome was denounced as a "Mutilated victory". In 1923, the Greek island of Corfu was briefly occupied by Italy, after the assassination of General Tellini in Greek territory. Partly because of this, the Papacy had relocated to Avignon in France. These smaller states were the fertile grounds of the Renaissance, which changed Europe massively once more and owed a lot to the competing states trying to outspend each other on glorious art and architecture. All male members of the House of Savoy were barred from entering Italy, a ban which was only repealed in 2002. Depretis began his term as Prime Minister by initiating an experimental political idea called Trasformismo (transformism). Mussolini was a World War I veteran, who had worked for the Socialist newspapers before the war but then broke off due to his pro-war stance and established his new Nationalist organization, Fasci di Combattimento. He is the author of the History in an Afternoon textbook series. According to American historian John W. Gordon, the British special forces were so impressed by the methods and tactics of the Italian desert corps "that they actually copied them". Italy's urban population fell in half, ransoms paid to the invaders and emergency taxes drained the finances. Tourism is vital to Italy’s economy and provides nearly 63% of Italy’s national income. Meanwhile, Rome had started annexing Etruscan cities. The Italian government could not deal with the situation effectively due to the mass overspending of the Depretis government that left Italy in huge debt. Some read this novel as a thinly veiled allegorical critique of Austrian rule. It was shocking the result of the anti-establishment Five Star Movement, founded by the former comedian Beppe Grillo, which gain 25.5% of votes, becoming the first party in the country. [31][32] The conquest of the Hellenistic kingdoms provoked a fusion between Roman and Greek cultures and the Roman elite, once rural, became a luxurious and cosmopolitan one. in Gordon Martel ed, Martin, J. and Romano, D., Venice Reconsidered, Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, 2000, Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, "The Biggest Epidemics of History"-La plus grande épidémie de l'histoire, in L'Histoire n°310, June 2006, pp.45–46, harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFBireley1990 (, Although he makes many references to classical sources, these references do not include the customary deference to, harvcoltxt error: no target: CITEREFStrauss1958 (, Dalle grandi rivoluzioni alla Restaurazione. The results of the 1876 election resulted in only four representatives from the right being elected, allowing the government to be dominated by Depretis. Mussolini and Adolf Hitler first met in June 1934, as the issue of Austrian independence was in crisis. They were still hunters, but had domesticated animals; they were fairly skilful metallurgists, casting bronze in moulds of stone and clay, and they were also agriculturists, cultivating beans, the vine, wheat and flax. This coincided with the rise of Islam in the Arabian Peninsula, North Africa and the Middle East. The Western part faced increasing economic and political crisis and frequent barbarian invasions, so the capital was moved from Mediolanum to Ravenna. It also has a legislative power, under the responsibility of the Council of Ministers and the Parliament. [117] Mussolini and the leading fascists were atheists but they recognized the opportunity of warmer relations with Italy's large Catholic element. The south, at the same time, was overpopulated, forcing millions of people to search for a better life abroad. Leonzio Pilato made an almost word for word translation of Homer's works into Latin for Giovanni Boccaccio. the Hebraic insurrection in Judea) (70) and brief civil wars (e.g. They negotiated with both sides for the best deal, and got one from the Entente, which was quite willing to promise large slices of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, including the Tyrol and Trieste, as well as making Albania a protectorate. Since the glory days of the Renaissance, Italy’s divided mini-states had gradually lost power and status on the European stage. They take their name from the characteristic Nuragic towers, which evolved from the pre-existing megalithic culture, which built dolmens and menhirs. In response to threats from the landward side, from the early 15th century Venice developed an increased interest in controlling the terrafirma as the Venetian Renaissance opened. The First Triumvirate ("three men"), had satisfied the interests of these three men: Crassus, the richest man in Rome, became richer; Pompey exerted more influence in the Senate; and Caesar held consulship and military command in Gaul. After the fall of Rome in AD 476, Italy was fragmented in numerous city-states and regional polities, and, despite seeing famous personalities from its territory and closely related ones (such as Dante Alighieri, Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo, Niccolò Machiavelli, Galileo Galilei or even Napoleon Bonaparte) rise, it remained politically divided to a large extent. The entire region south of Naples was afflicted with numerous deep economic and social liabilities. [42][43] The Senate granted Octavian a unique grade of Proconsular imperium, which gave him authority over all Proconsuls (military governors).[44]. The boom had also a huge impact on Italian society and culture. This new edition of Christopher Duggan's acclaimed introduction charts the country's history from the fall of the Roman Empire in the west to the present day and surveys the difficulties Italy has faced during the last two centuries in forging a nation state. [74], The Black Death returned to haunt Italy throughout the century. His leadership brought the zenith of the Roman civilization, that lasted for four decades. Crawley, ed. A first Indoeuropean migration occurred around the mid-3rd millennium BC, from a population who imported coppersmithing. Between the sixth to third centuries BCE, the Italian city of Rome conquered Peninsular Italy; over the... Renaissance and the Kingdom of Italy. Some 650,000 Italian soldiers died and 950,000 were wounded, while the economy required large-scale Allied funding to survive. Venice in the Middle Ages. Etruscans were a monogamous society that emphasized pairing. “Italy, 1793–1830" in C.W. Etruria's influence over the cities of Latium and Campania weakened, and it was taken over by Romans and Samnites. The foreign invasions of Italy known as the Italian Wars began with the 1494 invasion by France that wreaked widespread devastation on Northern Italy and ended the independence of many of the city-states. Brief Overview of Tuscany's History. Rome rebels against the Etruscans. Its forces had "more than their share of handicaps. The refusal of the Allies to grant these promised territories caused widespread indignation among Italian nationalists, while poet and adventurer Gabriele D'Annunzio led an expedition to occupy ethnic Italian Fiume, assigned to Yugoslavia. As no dominant powers emerged as they did in other parts of Europe, the oligarchic city-state became the prevalent form of government. In September 1943, Naples rose against the occupying German forces. The king, Ferdinand I, agreed to enact a new constitution. Italy was the cradle of Etruscan then Roman civilisations, and the centre of the first and largest empire in Europe and North Africa. In 480 BCE, Etruria's ally Carthage was defeated by a coalition of Magna Graecia cities led by Syracuse. Between the 12th and 13th centuries, Italy developed a peculiar political pattern, significantly different from feudal Europe north of the Alps. [86], At the time, the struggle for Italian unification was perceived to be waged primarily against the Austrian Empire and the Habsburgs, since they directly controlled the predominantly Italian-speaking northeastern part of present-day Italy and were the single most powerful force against unification. By Tim Lambert. ), the search for new commercial outlets and ports, and expulsion from their homeland, Greeks began to settle in Southern Italy (Cerchiai, pp. There was aggravation by lower class Italians to the break-up of communal lands which benefited only landlords. The judiciary is independent of the other two powers. Depretis put through authoritarian measures, such as the banning public meetings, placing "dangerous" individuals in internal exile on remote penal islands across Italy and adopting militarist policies. By 1953, industrial production had doubled compared with 1938 and the annual rate of productivity increase was 6.4%, twice the British rate. [141] In 1957, Italy was a founding member of the European Economic Community, which later transformed into the European Union (EU). From 1946, when the monarchy was abolished, Italy became a democratic republic. During the same period, the Normans also ended Muslim rule in Sicily. Besides the already unfortunate situation of many Italian farmers, a 19th century agricultural crisis in Italy led to falling grain prices and loss of markets for fruit and wine. The Italian peninsula lay at the core of the Roman Empire; one of the world’s great monotheistic religions, Catholicism, has its headquarters in Rome; and it was largely the dynamic city-states of Italy that set the modern era in motion with the Renaissance.But Italy has known chaos and deep suffering, too. An original Hellenic civilization soon developed, later interacting with the native Italic and Latin civilisations. The pope at the time, Pius IX, feared that giving up power in the region could mean the persecution of Italian Catholics.[88]. A great general and statesman, Julius Caesar won a civil war to become both sole ruler of the extensive Roman domains and dictator for life, setting in motion a process of transformation that led to the creation of the Roman Empire. A chronology of key events in the history of Italy from 1915 to the present His book, Of the Moral and Civil Primacy of the Italians, was published in 1843 and created a link between the Papacy and the Risorgimento. The Orlando government had started the process of reconciliation during the World War, and the pope furthered it by cutting ties with the Christian Democrats in 1922. Other original elements of the Sardinian civilization include the temples known as "Sacred Pits", perhaps dedicated to the holy water related to the Moon and astronomical cycles, the Giants' graves, the Megaron temples, several structures for juridical and leisure functions, and some refined statuettes. (Note: Napoleon III, as a young man, fought on the side of the 'Carbonari'.). 4.4 out of 5 stars 22. The Spaniards regained Naples and Sicily following the Battle of Bitonto in 1738. From this export base he later sold into a growing domestic market, where Fiat was without serious competition. In 1870, France started the Franco-Prussian War and brought home its soldiers in Rome, where they had kept the pope in power. This ultimately allowed another Germanic tribe, the Lombards, to take control over vast regions of Italy. A Brief Look at Italy's History of Division Roman Empire. [96] In 1887, Depretis was finally pushed out of office after years of political decline. This nation has a long history and is often considered a pillar of Western Civilization. The Fascist Party used violence and intimidation to achieve the threshold in the 1924 election, thus obtaining control of Parliament. Strong urban growth led to uncontrolled urban sprawl. Italy during that time prospered as the largest exporter of wine in Europe but following the recovery of France in 1888, southern Italy was overproducing and had to split in two which caused greater unemployment and bankruptcies. Summary. It was also in direct conflict with the dominant Catholic and scholastic doctrines of the time concerning how to consider politics and ethics.[68][69]. Keeping both direct Church control and Imperial power at arm's length, the many independent city states prospered through commerce, based on early capitalist principles ultimately creating the conditions for the artistic and intellectual changes produced by the Renaissance. The French were routed by Holy Roman Emperor Charles V at the Battle of Pavia (1525) and again in the War of the League of Cognac (1526–30). [19][20], A few years later, in 474 BC, Syracuse's tyrant Hiero defeated the Etruscans at the Battle of Cumae. Italy was the main center of the Renaissance, whose flourishing of the arts, architecture, literature, science, historiography, and political theory influenced all of Europe. The first government of Depretis collapsed after his dismissal of his Interior Minister, and ended with his resignation in 1877. Pasquino, Gianfranco. Between the sixth to third centuries BCE, the Italian city of Rome conquered Peninsular Italy; over the next few centuries, this empire spread to dominate the Mediterranean and Western Europe. in 68 CE the year of the four emperors) demanded the legions' attention on several occasions. It has been calculated that the Italian economy experienced an average rate of growth of GDP of 5.8% per year between 1951 and 1963, and 5.0% per year between 1964 and 1973. Plagued by internal political divisions and with an economy devastated by war, the new Kingdom of Italy was no Roman Empire. Italy and its smaller states also went through stages of foreign domination. The history of Italy covers the Ancient Period, the Middle Ages and the modern era. The Congress of Vienna (1814) restored the situation of the late 18th century, which was however quickly overturned by the incipient movement of Italian unification. The Germans brought Mussolini to northern Italy where he set up a Fascist puppet state, the Italian Social Republic. Rural folk saw war is a disaster, like drought, famine or plague. [33] Numantia fell and was completely razed to the ground in 133 BCE. [89] Garibaldi led the Italian republican drive for unification in southern Italy, but the northern Italian monarchy of the House of Savoy in the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia whose government was led by Camillo Benso, Count of Cavour, also had the ambition of establishing a united Italian state. The old prevailing vision of the country's industrial prospects had been rooted in traditional ideas of craftsmanship, frugality and thrift, which stood in contrast to the dynamism seen in automobiles and fashion, anxious to leave behind the protectionism of the Fascist era and take advantage of the opportunities offered by rapidly expanding world trade. 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